By one of mainest The reasons in transformation of Istanbul in world(global) метрополию, was the geographical rule(situation) Cities. Istanbul which is taking place on crossing 48 degrees of northern breadth and 28 degrees East longitude, unique(sole) city in the world, which has settled down on two continents. Mainly, the city consists of three parts: on the European party - historical Peninsula located in the south Халича, and in north Халича - Галата, on Asian To the party - New City.

On the European continent are located numerous trade And service centres, on Asian - mostly residential areas dividing(sharing) Asia with Europe and uniting the Black sea with Marble, is located on two coast Босфора. Besides a small gulf длиною in 7 kms., and received the name Халич, is divided(shared) by(with) the European continent of city on two parts. The city, owing to a geographical rule(situation) between Asia and Europe, during many centuries had the special geopolitical rule(situation).

The sources of the political and trade attitudes(relations) of Istanbul with the countries of the Balkan peninsula and Average East, and also тюркоязычных of the states of Russia leave in the far past, keeping and to this day importance. As a whole, Istanbul, длиною in 150 kms, and шириною in 50 kms, has the approximate area of 7 500 kms.

HISTORY БОСФОРА In IV in.., up to н. э., тысячилетия back, остроконечный cape washed by waters Strait, has received the name "Босфорус". The occurrence of the name of a strait, is connected With the Greek mythology. The word "Босфор" means on - древнегречески " the Cow ford ", And in one of myths there is a story about Ио and Зевсе. Громовержец Зевс, has transformed Beloved Ио, the daughter Инаха, in the cow to rescue her(it) from prosecutions Wife Gera. Smart Гера, has sent the fly on Ио, which being rescueed, has selected this Known sea way. During centuries, before groups воинов, crossing Through Босфор, rose непреодолимымые of difficulty. The first bridge through Босфор, has built ( 4 in., up to н. э..) Persian king Дарий 1-st, in a campaign on скифов. Armies (700 000 men) Дария, have built the bridge, in the bottleneck of a strait. With development of trade, Босфор promoted transformation of Istanbul into shopping center. The beauty of a strait, were Are found out in the Byzantian period, then have begun to be constructed years(summer) residences, дворцы and villa. Османы knew, that the gain of city is possible only with an establishment The control above Bosfor.

Thus, up to a gain of city, османы construct Хисары (Fortresses), Анатолийскую and Румелийскую. After a gain of Istanbul, османские падишахи have begun to construct locks, villas, years(summer) Residences and to live in them. At first, the structures were under construction in close to city centre Coastal parts Босфора, then, with occurrence in XIX century of steamships, years(summer) residences Have begun to be under construction on more distant прибрежьях of a strait. In the first time, on прибрежьях Босфора, settled down рыбачьи settlements. After some time, падишахи, with the purposes of The suppressions вельмож and palace знати, have begun to give them wooden дворцы And years(summer) villas. With an establishment of republic, the construction of buildings has put large Loss to an environment, strait, beauty Босфора. All coasts Босфора, built up Years(summer) дворцами, villas, in the territories have still " concrete buildings ", filling Historical beauty. But, despite of it, Istanbul, with unsurpassed beauty Босфора, fascinates extremely everything, both local and tourists. In a history Босфора, One of the main dates, considers 1973. This year the bridge through Босфор, for the first time Has united two parts of light - Europe and Asia.


Near to галатским the bridge, is quay of trip steam-ships - Каракёй. The quay was constructed in 1894 and helped in maintenance of trade communication(connection) with the world. At the left, from a coastal road, in area Топхане, высится a building on a slope. In XVI century the sultan Сулейман (Законодатель) has demolished ruins of a building of times Фатиха and has built an artillery arsenal. The area and was named - Топхане (weapon arsenal). In XV and XVI centuries in this building the largest and powerful guns in the world were produced. Before a building Топхане, is мечеть, constructed (1580) Синаном, in honour of the sea minister and commander -in-chief by fleet Кылыч Али Plough. Мечеть and refers to as - Кылыч Али Паша Джами. Near to мечетью there is a fountain constructed by the sultan Махмудом I (by 1732), however burned down completely. In 1957, the fountain again was reconstructed and декорирован (Fountain "Топхане".) Nearby to the green lock Топхане (is constructed in 1850., The English architect Джеймсом Смиттом) is one of most beautiful мечетей in style барокко - " Нусретийе Джами ". Мечеть has two graceful минарета with double шерефе (балкончиками) and unique(sole) dome. This мечеть was ordered during the sultan Махмуда II, in first half XIX of century, To the architect Киркору Бальяну. After acquaintance with architecture припортовых of buildings And structures, we доберёмся up to area called "Фындыклы". On прибрежье, is Palace complex " Чифте Сарайлар ", constructed in 1856.


On the Asian party of Istanbul two major Area. One of them, centre of modern city - Кадыкёй, another - historical Area Ускюдар. Despite of very small distance between these areas, on To atmosphere they absolutely different, and also it is necessary to note some isolation These areas, before as the continents were connected by the bridge.